What is APGAR Score? Newborn Assessment Tool

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APGAR Score is a tool to evaluate a newborn baby health.

Elements of the APGAR Score include the Colour, Heart Rate , Reflexex, Muscle tone & Respiration. APGAR score is designed to assess for signs of hemodynamic compromise such as cyanosis, hypoperfusion, bradiacardia, hypotonia, respiratory depression or apnea.

APGAR SCORE EXPLAINED

  • This tool for the assessment of newborn baby is devised by 1952 by VERGINIA APGAR the American Anasthatologist

The score range from 1-10

Calculated at 1 & 5 Minutes.

If less than 7 to be repeated every 5 minutes up to 20 minutes.

APGAR Scoring System

Indicators210
(A)Appearancecompletely pinkAcrocyanosis (Body pink, Extremities blue)Pale or blue all over
(P)Pulse more than 100 bpmLess than 100 bpmAbsent
(G)GrimacePulls away when Stimulated, sneezes, coughs, good, strong cry.Fascial griemce, feeble cry when stimulatedNo response with stimulation
(A)Activity Active Movement, well flexed extremitiessome flexion of extremitiesno movement (Flaccid , limp)
(R)Respirationgood, strong cryslow , irregular weak cryabsent

SCORE INTERPRETATION

ScoreInterpretationNursing intervention
7 to 10 Good Adjustment Rarely needs resusitation, airway clearance
4 to 6 Moderately depressed Infant suction dry immediately until stable careful observation
Intensive resusitation: CPR
0 to 3Severely depressed infant Intubation, Ventilate with 100% O2, Maintain body temperature , Parental support

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

To Identify infants that require respiratory support or any other resusitative support

Many infants with low APGAR Score do not go on to develop cerebral palsy but with time increases the population risk of the poor neurological outcome.

Score less than 5 at 5 and 10 minutes correlate with an increased relative risk of the cerebral palsy.

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