Physiology Guidelines for second year (DPT, MBBS, BDS)


Physiology Guidelines for second year (DPT, MBBS, BDS)



CNS Physiology

-Tactile receptors

– Dorsal Column tracts

– – Sensory Homunculus

– Dermatome diagram

– – Visceral Pain and Refered Pain mechanisms

– Herpes Zoster

– – Brown Sequard Syndrome

– Stretch Reflex

– – Reflex Arc

– Withdrawal Reflexes

– – Spinal Cord Transection

– Spinal Shock

– – Motor Homunculus

– Broca’s Area

– Corticospinal Tract

– Brainstem and its Functions

– Maculae and Hair cells actions and functions

– Functions of Cerebellum

– Spinocerebellar Tracts

– Dysmetria, Ataxia, Past Pointing, dysdiadochokinesia, intention tremors, Nystagmus

– Basal Ganglia Functions

– Parkinsonism (most important clinical)

– Cerebral Cortex functions

– Areas of Cerebral Cortex alongwith their respective functions

Wernicke’s Area

– Memory (long and short term just definitions)

– Retrograde Amnesia

– Hypothalamus Functions (important)

– Limbic System functions

– Sleep(REM, slow wave, brain waves during sleep)

– Epilepsy

– Seizures and types

– Alzheimer’s

ANS Receptors. Table 61-1, 61-2 (atleast, if not entire ANS)

– CSF Circulation, Formation,

– Coupe, Contrecoup,

– Blood Brain Barrier structure

– Stroke

– Facial Nerves pathways are very very important.

– Cranial nerves II and VII are the most favorite. Inke lesions aur pathways bohatatey Viva me aurospe me b.

Cranial Nerves IV aur VI ki lesions bhipuchte in MCQs

Special Senses Physiology


-Accommodation Mechanism, errors of refraction (Just defs),

-Visual Acuity, Refraction of light in eye,

-Aqueous Humor production mechanism and glaucoma

-Retina layers names

-Rhodopson Retinal cycle of Eye

-Light and Dark adaptation and Reflexes (v imp)

-Visual Pathways

-Cochlear Physiology, Organ of Corti,

-Human hearing range, hearing Abnormalities and tuning fork tests (both practical Ospe and theory)

-Taste Buds and taste Pathways,

-Olfactory pathways

Exercise Physiology


Chapter 1

*• Exercise: A test of homeostasis

Chapter 2

*• Define the following terms:-

▪ Work

▪ Power

▪ Relative VO2

▪ Percent grade

Units and definition can come in MCQs.

Chapter 3

*• Summary of cardiovascular responses to exercise. (Circulatory responses to exercise)

  • What is double product. Give its formulae
  • • Central command theory of cardiovascular regulation during exercise. Role of heart mechanoreceptors, muscle chemoreceptors, muscle mechanoreceptors and pressure sensitive receptors (baroreceptors) during exercise.
  • Give Fick Equation for measurement of VO2 max.

Chapter 4

*• Control of ventilation during exercise

  • What neural afferents might contribute to regulation of ventilation during exercise.

Chapter 5 (Most important Chapter)

*• Explain the basic principles of training.

  • What are the factors effecting VO2 max? What is its significance?
  • • Explain determinants of VO2 max
  • Role of genetics in VO2 max.
  • • Detraining and VO2 max
  • Changes that occur in skeletal muscle fibers in response to resistance exercise training.
  • • Remember you will never design an exercise program which includes both resistance and endurance exercise training at same time. (This was MCQ in myproff.)

Chapter 6

*• Describe one maximal (maximal run test) and one submaximal (Canadian home fitness test) field tests to estimate VO2 max.

  • Give termination criteria for stopping a GXT.
  • • What are different field tests for estimating CRF?

Chapter 7

*• What is FITT Principle? What is the difference between exercise and physical activity? (This difference cann also come in MCQ.)

  • Enlist the optimal frequency, intensity and duration of exercise needed to acheive in cardiorespiratory function.
  • • Explain the sequence of physical activity.
  • Draw and label physical activity pyramid.

Chapter 8

*• What happens to blood glucose concentration during prolonged exercise?

  • If exercise is helpful in controlling blood glucose, how could it complicate the life of type1 diabetic?
  • • How exercise-induced asthma is triggered?
  • What are the concerns about exercise during pregnancy? What are the guidelines recommeded for a pregnant woman who wishes to begin an exercise program?

Remaing Chapters

*• Muscle Soreness

  • Female athlete triad
  • • Hormones increasing in response to exercise
  • Effect of cold and hot humid enviornment on exercise.
  •  Types of fatigue (Central and peripheral fatigue)


*Exercise prescription for: –

*• Diabetes type 2

  • Asthma
  • • Phases of Cardiac rehablitation
  • Pregnancy
  • Relative and absolute contraindications for exercise during pregnancy.

Temperature Regulation Physiology


Ch#74 _Temperature Regulation and Fever

Sweating and it’s regulation by ANS

-Role of Hypothalamus in controlling Body Temperature

–Neuronal Effector Mechanisms that Decrease or Increase Body Temperature****

-Clinicals including:




_Acclimatization to heat

Renal Physiology


Recommended Book is Guyton Vol.1

Ch#25: The Body Fluid Compartments

Important for MCQ’s

Fluid intake and output of Water

Routes of water elimination

Table 25.1

Body Fluid Compartments (Distribution of water) Just read values

Table 25.2

Table 25.3

Give a read to the topic Determination of Volumes of Specific Fluid Compartments (Table 25.3)is summary of this topic


Safety Factor of Edema (Summary of this topic is given in the last 3points) that’s enough


Ch#26: The Urinary System: Functional Anatomy and Urine Formation

Important for MCQ, SEQ and Viva point of view

Functions of Kidney (Endocrine Functions especially)

Physiological Anatomy- give it a read

Differences between Cortical and Juxtamedullary Nephrons


Anatomy of Bladder

Innervation of Urinary Bladder-for MCQ

Micturition Reflex***

Abnormalities of Urinary Bladder- Scenario based questions from this Topic


Ch#27: Glomerular Filtration, Renal Blood Flow, and Their Control

Important for MCQ’s as well as SEQ’s

-Structure of Glomerular Capillary Membrane

GFR, Def., Formula, Determinants**

-Table 27.2

-Renal Blood Flow

-Table 27.4 for MCQ’s

-Role of Angiotensin II

-Autoregulation of GFR*** for SEQ

-Figure 27.10 for SEQ

-Figure 27.11 for Autoregulation by Macula DensaCells( Very Important SEQ)

-Myogenic Autoregulation


Ch#28: Renal Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion


Important for MCQ’s*** SEQ also

-Almost all Figures are Important SEQ as well as for MCQ’s

-Figure 28.1

-Figure 28.2

-Transport Maximum

-Reabsorption and Secretion along Different parts of Nephron (SEQ,MCQ)

-Inhibitors in Every part like in Figures 28.9, 28.10, 28.12

-Glomerulotubular Balance

-Role of Hormones in Reabsorption (Table 28.3)

-Methods of Clearance (Inulin, Creatinine,PAH)

-Table 28.4

Ch#29: Urine Concentration and Dilution; Regulation of ECF Osmolarity and Na Concentration

Imp chapter for both MCQ’s and SEQ’s

-Formation of Dilute Urine

-Excretion of Dilute Urine

-Obligatory Urine Volume(MCQ)

-Specific Gravity of Urine(MCQ)

-Formation of Concentrated Urine(SEQ)

Counter Current Multiplier Mechanism***(SEQ)->Steps

-Figure 29.4

-Counter Current Exchange in Vasa Recta(Figure 29.7)

-Osmolar and Free Water Clearance

-Diabetes Insipidus (Scenario based question)

-Osmoreceptor ADH Feedback System***(Figure 29.9)

-Table 29.2

-Table 29.3


Ch#30 Not important


Ch#31: Acid-Base Regulation

Important for MCQ’s

Mostly you cover this chapter from Biochemistry…

-Table 31.1(pH)


-Respiratory Regulation of Acid-Base Balance

-Renal Control of Acid-Base Balance

-Table 31.3***

Clinicals***(for scenario based questions)

-Figure 31.10****for overall understanding of Acidosis and Alkalosis

-Table 31.4* MCQ’s

-Anion gap



Endocrinology Physiology


Recommend Book is Guyton(Vol.2)

It contains 6 Chapters(#75-80)

Ch#75 Introduction to Endocrinology

-Read it thoroughly and Mark the important points, which u think…

-Important chapter for MCQ’s only

-Especially Table 75.1

Instead of this,

-Intracellular Signaling Pathways (Figures specially) But in this topic G- protein Linked Receptor System is most important

-Second Messenger System is also important (But this topic you people also study in Biochemistry) and

-In last just read ELISA technique and it’s figure.


Ch#76 Pituitary Gland Hormones


-Classification of hormones of Anterior and Posterior Pituitary Glands

-Hormones of Hypothalamus

-Growth Hormone(functions, secretion) important for SEQ

-Clinicals(Panhypopituitarism, Gigantism, Dwarfism, Acromegaly) important for scenario based MCQ’s or SEQ’s

-Posterior Pituitary Hormones (ADH, Oxytocin)

-ADH is covered mostly in Renal System

-Functions of Oxytocin (just read these 2)


Ch#77 ThyroidMetabolic Hormone


Important chapter for both MCQ’s & SEQ’s

-Synthesis & Secretion of Thyroid Hormone

-Release of Thyroid Hormone

-(Fig.77.2) V.V.Important

-Functions (especially Cardiac functions and Effect on Sleep)

-Figure 77.5(for functions) Summary

-Cardiac functions include:

__COP, __HR, __SV, __Cardiac Muscle Strength, etc.

-Clinicals (Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism) important for both MCQ’s and SEQ’s scenario based.

Last time most of the MCQ’s from Endocrinology portion are from this chapter, from Clinicals  sO Prepare it well & next chapter is important too


Ch#78 Adrenocortical Hormones


Important chapter for both MCQ’s as well as SEQ’s

-Classification of hormones of adrenal cortex and medulla

-Mineralocorticoids, Glucocorticoids (for MCQ’s)

-Figure 78.2(Important)

-Functions of Aldosterone (Important for SEQ’s)

-Metabolic functions of Glucocorticoids (Cortisol) V.V.Important topic for SEQ’s

-Role of cortisol in inflammation_SEQ’s

-Clinicals(Addison’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome) V.V.V.Important for scenario based SEQ’s

-Conn’s Syndrome, Adrenogenital Syndrome (also for scenario based SEQ’s).


Ch#79 Insulin Glucagon & Diabetes Mellitus


Important chapter for MCQ’s & SEQ’s as well

-Physiological Anatomy of Pancreas(Read it)

-Insulin Synthesis (Important for SEQ’s)

-Figure 79.3(Important)

-Role of insulin in Liver(Uptake, Storage, Use)

-Metabolic Effects of Insulin (Especially on Fats) V.V.Important for SEQ

-Mechanism of Insulin secretion (Figure 79.7) Important for SEQ

-Table 79.1 Regulation of Insulin Secretion (For MCQ & SEQ)

-Functions of Glucagon Important SEQ

-Clinicals (Diabetes Mellitus) V.Important for MCQ’s and scenario based SEQ

-Table 79.3 Differences between Type-I & Type-II Diabetes Mellitus


Ch#80 PTH, Calcitonin, Calcium & Phosphate Metabolism, Vitamin D, Bone


Important chapter for MCQ’s not as such important for SEQ’s

-Figure 80.3

-Mechanism of Bone Calcification

-Remodeling of Bone(Figure 80.5) for SEQ

-Activation of Vitamin D (Important for SEQ)

-Actions of Vitamin D

-PTH & it’s functions for SEQ

-Figure 80.13(Summary of effects of PTH)


-Clinicals (Hypoparathyroidism, Hyperparathyroidism, Rickets, Osteoporosis) Important for scenario based MCQ & SEQ

Reproduction Physiology


Recommended Book is Guyton

1 SEQ from this Topic

Ch#81 Reproductive and Hormonal Functions of Male


-Steps of Spermatogenesis

-Function of Seminal Vesicles and Prostate (Give it a read)

-Acrosome Reaction

-Functions of Testosterone*** (For SEQ)

-Clinicals (Hypogonadism, Prostate Cancer)


Ch#82 Female Physiology Before Pregnancy and Female Hormones


-Hormones(For MCQ’s)

-Ovarian Cycle


-Mechanism of Ovulation


-LH Surge

-Functions of Estrogen and Progesterone***



-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin*


Ch#83 Pregnancy and Lactation


-Structure of Placenta(Fig.83.5)

-Functions of hCGs

-Functions of Estrogen in Pregnancy

-Preeclampsia and Eclampsia

-Process of Lactation

That’s all about Reproduction

Most of it you covered in Anatomy and Embryo…


Its all about physiology

Neuroanatomy Guidelines for Second Year (DPT, MBBS, BDS)

Benefits of Exercise and Regular Physical Activity in Normal Persons

Examination Guidelines on the day of paper at UHS for DPT, MBBS,BDS & Allied Sciences


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