Neuroanatomy Guidelines for Second Year (DPT, MBBS, BDS)

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Neuro Anatomy Guidelines for Second Year (DPT, MBBS, BDS)


Recommended books for this region

  • Clinical Neuroanatomy by Richard Snell
  • Netter atlas
  • YouTube Channel ( selfless medicos)

Note

Pg. nmbr may be different in your new edition books from mentioned here so carefully mark in ur books


Ch # 1 Introduction and organization of the nervous System

  • This chapter is not imp for Seqs just do it for mcqs

Division of the CNS

  • 02 just give it a reading and do memorize the terms mentioned in spinal cord.
  • Spinal cord occupies 2\3rd part of vertebral canal
  • Spinal cord ends at Lower border of L1 ( in adults) and at L3 level in infants ( vv imp mcq)
  • Table 1-1 ( must read)

Clinical

  • Injury to the spinal cord and Brain ( for mcqs) pg. 17
  • Spinal Tap level Pg. 19
  • Hemorrhage ( also present in head and neck region ) pg. 23

Ch # 2 The Neurobiology

Again this chapter is also not imp so just give a read to some specific topics

  • Neuron
  • Types of neuron ( unipolar bipolar and multipolar )
  • White matter
  • Grey matter
  • Neuroglia Cells ( supporting cells)
  • Astrocytes
  • Oligodendrocytes
  • Microglia
  • Ependymal cells
  • Functions are vvvv imp. Table 2-4 pg. 55

Ch # 3 Nerve Fibers, Nerve Receptors

  • Nerve fiber ( definition)
  • Peripheral Nerves ( pg. 80 )
  • Cranial nerves 12 pairs
  • Spinal nerves 31 pairs
  • Nerve Receptors
  • Table 3-3 ( imp)
  • Type, location, stimulus, modality, fibers

Clinical

  • Injury of cell body
  • Injury of processes
  • Wallerian degeneration

Ch # 4 SpinalCord and Ascending Descending Tracts

  • Gross Appearance of the Spinal Cord Pg 137
  • Structure of the Spinal Cord
  • Table 4-1 vv imp
  • Nerve cell groups in the anterior, posterior and lateral columns
  • Fig 4-6 and just do check all the diagrams of different levels given in book

Must memorize the location and sensory modalities sensed by nucleus

Must remember

Sympathetic outflow T1-L3

Parasympathetic outflow Cranial + S2-S4

Fig 4-11 vvv impshowing the tracts Pg 143

Define tract

Anatomical Organization

Read for once and build Ur concept so that next topics will be easy for u

TRACTS

Give read to all the tracts so that u can understand easily

U should also practice to trace all the pathways e.g Fig 4-14 do all the pathways like this figure

Vv imp viva question    Spinal leminiscus = lateral spinothalamic tract + anterior spinothalamic tract + spinotectal tract

Table 4-2

Table 4-3

Table4-4

These all are v imp (bas ratta maar lo inko lekin smajh kar)

Clinical Notes

All clinicalare v imp for mcqs for seqs

But the most imp clinical is    (Lesions) Pg 167 from seqs viva point of view

Pyramidal tracts

Extrapyramidal tracts

Upper motor neuron lesions

Lower motor neuron lesion

All the signs reflex effects in short complete chapter is vvv imp.

Ch # 5 The Brainstem

  • Pg 196…
  • Introduction to Brainstem
  • Gross appearance of Medulla
  • Complete detail each and every term (vv imp for viva)model achy sy karna h
  • Fig 5-9
  • Internal Structure
  • All cross sections (level of decussation) with detail and diagram vv imp
  • Table 5-2
  • Same goes with Pons and Midbrain
  • Gross appearance
  • Cross section
  • All figures
  • To understand must check figure from Atlas
  • Tables
  • Clinical Notes
  • Effect of Pressure
  • Arnoid-chiari Phenomenon
  • Wallenberg syndrome
  • Weber syndrome
  • Benedict syndrome

In short u have to do complete chapters.  Videos lazmi dekhen to clear your concepts.

Ch # 6 The Cerebellum And Its connections

  • Gross Appearance of the Cerebellum
  • Fig 6-1
  • Functional Areas of the cerebellar Cortex
  • Intracerebellar Nuclei Vv imp
  • Dentate
  • Emboliform
  • Globbose
  • Fastigial

(Don’t Eat Greasy Food)

Fig 6-7

Cerebellar Cortical Mechanism

  • Climbing Fibers
  • Mossy Fibers
  • Purkinge cells ( center of functional unit of cerebellar cortex)

Cerebellar Peduncles

Afferent efferent Pathways are vvv imp for viva and Seqs both.

The Afferent Cerebellar Pathways

  • Pathway name
  • Function
  • Origin
  • Destination

Table 6-1 (imp)

The Efferent fibers

  Table 6-2 (imp)

  • Pathway name
  • Function
  • Origin
  • Destination

Clinical Notes

Vvv imp(for viva mcqs and seqs all)

  • Signs and symptoms of cerebellar disease
  • Hypotonia
  • Postural changes
  • Ataxia
  • Dysdiadochokinesia
  • Pendular knee jerk
  • Disturbance of ocular movement
  • Dysarthria
  • Vermis Syndrome

Ch # 7 The Cerebrum

  • This chapter is imp for mcqs and viva.
  • Give a reading to the subdivision of cerebrum for Mcqs.
  • Fig 7-2
  • Fig 7-3

Do these two figures for understanding and clearing the concepts.

Pg 257

  • Optic Chiasma
  • Tuber cinereum
  • Mammillary body

(Must do read these topics.

Third Ventricle (vv imp for viva)

  • Communication
  • Walls
  • Roof
  • Floor

General Appearance

Watch videos and do diagrams and figures from atlas and neuro book both.Models are vv imp of this topic

  • All sulci
  • All gyri

(Vvv imp for viva) Clinical Anatomy Pg 273

Alzheimer Disease

Ch # 8 Cerebral Cortex

  • Only do cortical areas of all lobes
  • Just do for mcqs and viva w.r.t functioning, location.

Models are v imp.

Fig 8-4 must do.

 

Ch # 9 the Reticular Formation and The Limbic System

  • Skip this complete chapter.

Ch # 10 The Basal Nuclei

Terminology

  • Corpus Striatum
  • Caudate nucleus
  • Lentiform Nucleus
  • Amygdaloid Nucleus
  • Substantia Nigra
  • Subthalamic Nuclei
  • Claustrum
  • Shape
  • Location
  • Connections ( just do names)

Fig 10.2

Clinical Notes vv imp

  • Hyper kinetic disorder ( excessive movements)
  • Chorea, athtosis and balism.
  • Hypo kinetic disorder (lack or slowness of movements).
  • Parkinson disease includes BOTH types of motor disturbance.
  • Characteristics of all diseases Pg 322 specially Parkinson disease.

Ch # 11 The Cranial Nerve Nuclei and Their connections Plus Distribution

  • Names of all the nerves Pg 332

Table 11-2 vv imp

Do detail of 4th,5th,7th, 11th and 12th.

  • Nuclei
  • Course
  • Distribution
  • Connections

Clinical Notes

  • Clinicals of all the nerves are vv imp for mcqs, seqs and viva.
  • Facial nerve Lesions vv imp seq.
  • How to test or examine corresponding nerve e.g hypoglossal Nerve by movements of tongue. ( vv imp)
  • Exception of hypoglossal nerves i.e. Geniogllus muscle receives fibers from opposite Cerebral hemisphere. ( v imp viva question)

Ch # 12 The Thalamus and Its Connections

  • Just do for Mcqs and Viva.
  • General Appearance of Thalamus
  • Subdivision of Thalamus
  • Table 12-1
  • Figure 12-3 ( for OSPE)

Clinical Notes

  • Thalamic Hand

Ch # 13 The Hypothalamus and Its Connections

Just do all the Tables.

Table 13-4 (the most imp one)

Ch # 14 The Autonomic Nervous System

Skip this chapter.

Ch # 15 The Meninges of The Brain and Spinal Cord

  • Imp for mcqs and Viva.(Also present in Head and Neck region).
  • Do complete chapter with Clinicals.
  • Figure 15-6 → at middle of cavernous sinus
  • Internal carotid artery
  • Abducent Nerve
  • at lateral part of sinus
  • Occulomotor nerve
  • Trochlear nerve
  • Ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve
  • Maxillary division of trigeminal nerve

Above complete detail is also present in Head and Neck region and Imp for Seq.

  • Do differences of meninges of Brain and Spinal Cord.
  • All the sinuses.
  • Spaces e.g sub Dural space subarachnoid space

Ch # 16 The Ventricular System

  • Do complete chapter for mcqs, viva and SEQS too.

All the Ventricles.

  • Boundaries
  • Choroid Plexus
  • Communications

4th Ventricle is the most imp for SEQ.

Table 16-1

Table 16-2

Extension of the Subarachnoid Space

  • Optic nerve ( with its clinical)
  • Vessels

Clinical Notes

  • Hydrocephalus ( imp for SEQ)
  • Types
  • Causes
  • CSF Pressure with its diseases.

Ch # 17 The Blood Supply

Vvv imp chapter for Mcqs, SEQs and VIVA, OSPE.

Do complete chapter with all the diagrams.

  • Arteries with its branches name and supply
  • Figure 17-2 vv imp for SEQ. ( Circle of WILLIS)
  • Figure 17-3 ( for viva and SEQ both)
  • Figure 17-5 venous drainage
  • Figure 17-7 spinal cord supply

Clinical Notes

  • Cerebral Ischemia
  • Hemorrhage

In short this complete chapter is vv imp.

 

 

 

 

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