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Benefits of Exercise and Regular Physical Activity in Normal Persons

Evidence to support the inverse relationship between physical activity and premature mortality, CVD/CAD, hypertension, stroke, osteoporosis, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, obesity, colon cancer, breast cancer, depression, functional health, falls, and cognitive function continues to accumulate.

IMPROVEMENT IN CARDIOVASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY FUNCTION

  1. Increased maximal oxygen uptake resulting from both central an peripheral adaptations
  2. Decreased minute ventilation at a given absolute submaximal intensity
  3. Decreased myocardial oxygen cost for a given absolute submaximal intensity
  4. Decreased heart rate and blood pressure at a given submaximal intensity
  5. Increased capillary density in skeletal muscle
  6. Increased exercise threshold for the accumulation of lactate in the blood
  7. Increased exercise threshold for the onset of disease signs or symptoms (e.g., angina pectoris, ischemic ST-segment depression, claudication)

REDUCTION IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS

  1. Reduced resting systolic/diastolic pressure
  2. Increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased serum triglycerides
  3. Reduced total body fat, reduced intra-abdominal fat
  4. Reduced insulin needs, improved glucose tolerance
  5. Reduced blood platelet adhesiveness and aggregation
  6. Reduced inflammation

DECREASED MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY

  1. Primary prevention (i.e., interventions to prevent the initial occurrence)
  2. Higher activity and/or fitness levels are associated with lower death rates from coronary artery disease
  3. Higher activity and/or fitness levels are associated with lower incidence rates for CVD, CAD, stroke, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, osteoporotic fractures, cancer of the colon and breast, and gallbladder disease
  4. Secondary prevention (i.e., interventions after a cardiac event to prevent another)
  5. Based on meta-analyses (i.e., pooled data across studies), cardiovascular and all-cause mortality are reduced in patients with post-myocardial infarction (MI) who participate in cardiac rehabilitation exercise training, especially as a component of multifactorial risk factor reduction
  6. Randomized controlled trials of cardiac rehabilitation exercise training involving patients with post-MI do not support a reduction in the rate of nonfatal reinfarction

OTHER BENEFITS

  1. Decreased anxiety and depression
  2. Improved cognitive function
  3. Enhanced physical function and independent living in older individuals
  4. Enhanced feelings of well-being
  5. Enhanced performance of work, recreational, and sport activities
  6. Reduced risk of falls and injuries from falls in older individuals
  7. Prevention or mitigation of functional limitations in older adults
  8. Effective therapy for many chronic diseases in older adults

Refrerrance:

ACSM’s Sports Medicine : A Comprehensive Review

Casa, Douglas J., Ph.d. (edt); St. Pierre, Patrick, M.d. (edt); O’connor, Francis G., M.d. (edt); Davis, Brian A., M.d. (edt); O Connor, F G


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