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Anatomy Lecture (General Anatomy)

Anatomy Lecture (What is anatomy,Anatomic position,Surfaces Planes,Movement related to planes,List of basic structures,Skin,Fascia)

INTRODUCTION

  • What is anatomy
  • Anatomic position
  • Surfaces
  • Planes
  • Movement related to planes
  • List of basic structures
  • Skin
  • Fascia

ANATOMY

  • Anatomy is the science of structure and function of the body
  • The science of the shape and structure of organisms and their parts

TERMS RELATED TO POSITION

Anatomic position:

  • Person standing erect with upper limbs by sides and face and palms of the hands directed forward.

 

SURFACES

Anterior and Posterior surface:

Front and back of body

Palmar and dorsal surfaces:

In describing hand these terms are used as anterior and posterior

Planter and dorsal surface:

In describing foot these terms are used as anterior and posterior

Proximal and distal surface:

Describe the relative distance from roots of limbs e.g. Arm is proximal and forearm is distal

Superficial and deep:

Relative distances of structures from surface of body

Superior and inferior:

Denotes levels relatively high and low with reference to upper and lower ends of body

Internal and external:

Describe the relative distance of structure from the center of an organ or cavity e.g. Internal carotid and external carotid artery

Ipsilateral and contralateral:

Refers to same side of body or opposite side of body

Supine and Prone:

Position of body lying on back and lying with face forward respectively

PLANES

  • Median /Sagittal plane
  • Coronal /Frontal plane
  • Horizontal /Transverse plane

MEDIAN PLANE

  • Vertical plane passing though center of body
  • Dividing it into equal right and left halves
  • Structure situated nearer to median plane of body than another is said to be medialto other
  • Structure that lies farther away from median plane is said to be lateral
  • Planes situated to one and other side and parallel to median plane are paramedian

CORONAL PLANE

  • Imaginary vertical planes at right angle to the median plane
  • Divides the body into anterior and posterior

Horizontal Plane

  • Imaginary plane that are at right angle to the imaginary axis
  • Divide the body into upper and lower half

MOVEMENT

  • The act of moving is known as movement
  • There are some terms related to movement in body

–      Flexion, extension

–      Abduction, adduction

–      Medial and lateral rotation

TERMS RELATED TO MOVEMENT

  • Flexion: bending movement that decreases angle between two parts of a joint
  • Extension: means straightening of joint and usually takes place in posterior direction
  • Abduction: movement of limb away from midline of body in coronal plane
  • Adduction: movement of limb toward the body in coronal plane

            Rotation: movement of part of body around its long axis

  • Medialrotation: movement that results in anterior surface of part facing medially
  • Lateralrotation: movement that results in anterior surface of part facing laterally
  • Protraction: to move forward
  • Retraction: to move backward

LIST OF BASIC STRUCTURES

  • Skin
  • Fascia
  • Muscle
  • Joints
  • Ligaments
  • Bursae
  • Blood vessels
  • Lymphatic system
  • Nervous system
  • Mucous membrane
  • Serous membrane
  • Bones
  • Cartilage

SKIN

  • Skin is most important organ of body
  • It provides protection to internal body parts against harmful substances
  • It is divided into 2 parts:

–      Epidermis

–      dermis

EPIDERMIS

  • It is stratified epithelium whose cells become flattened as they mature and rise to the surface
  • In some areas it is thick and in others it is thin
  • In palms and soles of feet it is thick
  • In anterior surface of arm and forearm it is thin

DERMIS

  • Deep to epidermis is dermis
  • It contains many blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves
  • It also shows considerable difference in variations in different parts of body

FASCIAE

  • It lies between the skin and underlying muscle and bone
  • It consist of 2 layers

–      Superficial fascia

–      Deep fascia

SUPERFICIAL FASCIA

  • It is the mixture of loose areolar tissue and adipose tissue
  • It unites the dermis of skin to underlying deep fascia

DEEP FASCIA

  • It is membranous layer of connective tissue that invests muscle and other deep structures
  • In joints deep fasciae may be thickened to form bands called retinacula
  • Their function is to hold underlying tendons in place

INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE

SKELETAL MUSCLE ACTION

  • Prime mover
  • Antagonist
  • Fixator
  • Synergist

MUSCLE TONE

  • Muscle tone is major factor controlling stability
  • In shoulder joint muscle tone of short muscles around it keeps head of humerus in shallow glenoid cavity
  • Without action of these muscles very little force would be required to dislocate the joint

BURSAE

  • A bursae is a lubricating device
  • It is a closed fibrous sac lined with smooth membrane
  • Its walls are separated by viscous fluid
  • Bursae are found wherever tendons rub against bones, ligaments or other tendons

 

COLLAGEN

  • The main structural protein of the various connective tissues in animals
  • Collagen occurs in many places throughout the body

TYPES OF COLLAGEN

The five most common types are:

  • Collagen I: skin, tendon, vascular ligature, organs, bone (main component of the organic part of bone)
  • Collagen II:cartilage (main component of cartilage)
  • Collagen III: reticulate (main component of reticular fibers), commonly found alongside type I.
  • Collagen IV: forms basal lamina, the epithelium-secreted layer of the basement membrane.
  • Collagen V: cell surfaces, hair and placenta

                                             Over 90% of the collagen in the body, is type I.

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