Biochemistry guidelines for second year (DPT, MBBS, BDS)

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Biochemistry guidelines for second year (DPT, MBBS, BDS)


BIOCHEMISTRY GUIDELINES

Curriculum wise


CELL*from mushtaq book*

only for mcqs give it a read !!

 

  • Define Biochemistry & describe its significance
  • Compare the characteristics of prokaryotes and eukaryotes (imp for mcq)
  • Describe the biochemical structure of cell membrane & enlist its functions (imp)
  • Enumerate the components of cytoskeleton and infer the importance of these components
  • (microfilaments, microtubules, & intermediate filaments)

 

BODY FLUIDS

ch 1 from lippin but irecomnend FAIQ for this mcq portion

 

  • Define and enumerate weak acids & bases
  • Define pH &pK
  • State the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation & enlist its applications
  • Define buffers & discuss their mechanism of action
  • Enumerate body buffers and infer their role in acid-base homeostasis

Chemistry of carbs:

 

Fiaq is recommended.

  • Define and classify carbohydrates. Enlist their biochemical functions.
  • Clearly differentiate between D and L isomers, alpha nd beta antiomers and Aldo and keto isomers. Define epimers and enumerate important epimers of glucose.
  • Illustrate structure and function of monosachhrides( glucose, fructose, galactose and mannose.), disacchrides (maltose, lactose, sucrose, lactulouse), oligosacchrides.
  • Illustrate the structure and function of homoplysacchrides(starch, glycogen and cellulose)
  • Illustrate structure and function of hetropolysacchrides(glycoseaminoglycan) from lipin

 

PROTEINS (lippin)

Chemistry

  • Do amino acid classification flowcharts not details from any short book (I recommend faiq)
  • Structure of proteins is v.imp (primary sec tertiary etc)Protein misfolding is for mcqs
  • Do chapter summary of fibrous and globular protein but figure 4.2 is v imp don’t skip it and role of alpha anti trypsin is imp as well for seq
  • (PEM). Compare and contrast the salient features of kwashiorkor and marasm (faiq)

 

Metabolism (Lippincott)

  • Urea cycle most imp
  • Ammonia with sources
  • Digestion absorption (great concept should be made)
  • Hyperbilirubinemia
  • Define nucleotide nucleotide with hyperuricemia and gout

ENDOCRINOLOGY

Its same like u guys studied in physiology do waste Time on it

  • Just do adrenocorticoids blockers
  • Type 1 2 hormones
  • Insulin glucaogon should be done from liipin
  • Give a read to rest of it .

 

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENETICS

(DONT MISS IT GUYS FROM LIPPIN )

Follow lippinbczmcq book ki pet lines atin

  • Briefly describe the structure, organization and functions of DNA (Read)
  • Briefly describe the structure and functions of RNAs (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA) (imp)
  • Briefly illustrate the steps of DNA replication(Important)
  • (in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes) & repair. Interpret
  • the significance of DNA repair mechanisms with special reference to xeroderma pigmentosum
  • (Don’t miss this disease)
  • Briefly illustrate the process of DNA transcription (in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes) and infer its

significance

  • Define genetic code and codons. Infer the consequences of altering the nucleotide sequence (silent
  • mutation, missense mutation, nonsense mutation, trinucleotide repeat expansion, splice- site mutations and frame-shift mutations).
  • Briefly describe the pre-requisites (components are important)) and steps of protein synthesis (in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes) & repair.
  • *Apply this knowledge to understand how the drugs like streptomycin, tetracyclins,

puromycin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin exert their antibiotic effects* (mosttttttt imp)

  • Define restriction endonucleases, vectors, probes. Briefly describe the recombinant DNA technology and enlist its applications.
  • Outline the steps of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enlist advantage (important)

and applications of this technique

 

 Vitamins

(liipin or faiq )

choice is yours bcz both are good

 

MUST DO VITAMIN TABLE FROM Lippincott IF U have less time table is also enough with sources 🙂

 

  • Define and classify vitamins
  • Enumerate sources and quote RDA of fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E & K).
  • Enumerate sources and quote RDA of water soluble vitamins (B-complex and vitamin C).

 

TISSUE BIOCHEMISTRY

 

GAGS are most imp

  • Genetic disorders of bone are imp
  • Give a read to rest of topics

 

ENZYMES

 

do complete chapter from lipincot.

And  with given topics from mushtaq

Define isoenzymes and apply the knowledge of isoenzymes to diagnose various clinical problems

(Isoenzymes of CK & LDH)

  • Define pro-enzymes. Give significance and suitable examples of pro-enzymes
  • AST, ALT, ALP, amylase, & acid phosphatase

Chemistry of lipids (faiq)

 

  • *Define and classify lipids
  • * Illustrate structure of fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated fatty acids)
  • *Define and enumerate the essential fatty acids
  • *Illustrate the structure of triglycerols and enlist its functions(imp)
  • *Illustrate structure of phosphotidyl choline, phosphotidyl inositol and sphynhomyline. Enlist respiratory distress syndrome.
  • *classify lipoprotein and illustrate their general structure.
  • * Illustrate structure of cholesterol and enlist its functions (most imp)

* Quote the resources and evaluate the health effects saturated and monounsaturated fats, omega 3 fatty acids, omega 6 fatty acids, essential fatty acids, trans fats and cholesterol (Lippincott)

Metabolism of carbohydrates

 

  • *cycles are important (faiq or lipin)
  • * process of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates are important.
  • * enlist the seven  major types of GLUTs along their functions (imp)
  • * Define glycolysis and do list memorize cycles pyruvate kinase deficiency.
  • * identify the fate of pyruvate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (imp)
  • * Outline reactions  of citric acid cycle mentioning their regulatory enzymes.
  • * Outline the reactions of glycogenesis and glycogenolysis. Infer the significance of these pathways.
  • * Define gluconeogenesis and enumerate is substrate. Outline the reactions of gluconeogenesis mentioning the regulatory enzymes. Infer the significance of the pathway.
  • * Outline reactions of pentose phosphate pathway. Infer the glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

Metabolism of lipids :

  • *cycles can be done from faiq.
  • * Outline the steps involved in the process of digestion and absorption of lipids and apply the knowledge to explain the biochemical mechanism underlying the clinical features of cystic fibrosis(lipin)
  • * Outline reactions involved in biosynthesis and oxidation (beta oxidation) of fatty acids.
  • * Outline reactions of biosynthesis and degradation of triacylglycerols.
  • * Outline reactions of biosynthesis and utilization of ketone bodies.
  • * Outline reactions involved in biosynthesis of cholesterol. Identify the regulatory enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.
  • * Diagramaticallyillustrate  the process involved in metabolism of lipoproteins (chylomictons, VLDL, LDL, HDL). Apply this knowledge to infer the harmful and beneficial effects of raised LDL and HDL. Associate the development of arteriosclerosis with hypercholesterolemia and interpret its complications (from lipin)
  • * Classify ecosanoids. Outline the steps involved in their biosynthesis. Appraise the role of various ecosanoids in health and disease. Evaluate the clinical use of corticosteroids, COX 1  and COX 2 (faiq)

 

ITS all about biochemistry

Neuroanatomy Guidelines for Second Year (DPT, MBBS, BDS)

 

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