Anatomy Lecture 04 (General Anatomy)

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Anatomy Lecture 04 (General Anatomy) Stability of synovial joints,Nervous system,Central nervous system,Peripheral nervous system,Autonomic nervous system,Structures related to muscles

INTRODUCTION

  • Stability of synovial joints
  • Nervous system
  • Central nervous system
  • Peripheral nervous system
  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Structures related to muscles

 

TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINT

  • Plane joint
  • Hinge joint
  • Pivot joint
  • Condyloid joint
  • Ellipsoid joint
  • Saddle joint
  • Ball and socket joint

STABILITY OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS

The stability of a joint depends on three main factors:

  • The shape size and arrangement of articular surfaces
  • The ligaments
  • The tone of muscle around

ARTICULAR SURFACES

  • Bone shape plays an important role in joint stability
  • Ball and socket arrangement of shoulder joint
  • Mortise arrangement of ankle joint

LIGAMENTS

  • A cord or band of connective tissue uniting two structures
  • Commonly found in association with joints

TYPES OF LIGAMENTS

Ligaments are of two types

  • Fibrous ligaments
  • Elastic ligaments

FIBROUS LIGAMENTS

  • Composed of dense bundles of collagen fibers
  • Unstretchable normally
  • Prevent excessive movement in a joint
  • If the stress continues for an excessive long period then fibrous ligament stretch

ELASTIC LIGAMENTS

  • Composed largly of elastic tissue
  • Can return to the original length after stretching

NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • It is responsible for transmitting and receiving electrical and chemical signals within body
  • It together with endocrine system controls and integrate activities of different parts of body

NERVOUS SYSTEM

It messages through

  • Afferent neurons
  • Efferent neurons
  • Interneurons

AFFERENT NEURON

  • Neurons that send signals from peripheral nervous system (arms and legs) to spinal cord
  • And onto cerebral cortex also

 EFFERENT NEURON

  • Neurons that send messages from cerebral cortex  to muscles and various organs in body
  • Achieve a desired response

 

 

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • It integrates information, coordinates and influences activity of, all parts of body
  • CNS consist of large numbers of nerve cells and their processes
  • Supported by specialized tissue called neuroglia

NEURON

  • Neuron is a term given to nerve cell and its processes
  • The neuron has a cell body and two types of processes, dendrites and axon

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is part of nervous system
  • It consists of nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord
  • Main function of PNS is to connect CNS to limbs and organs
  • Serves as a communication relay going back and forth between brain and extremities

 

PLEXUSES

  • Interconnection between spinal nerves
  • When ventral rami of 2 or more then 2 spinal nerves interconnect with each other they form nerve plexus

PLEXUS IN BODY

  • Cervical plexuses
  • Brachial plexuses
  • Lumbar plexuses
  • Sacral plexuses

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • The autonomic nervous system (ANS), also known as visceral nervous system and involuntary nervous system
  • It is part of nervous system that controls involuntary actions
  • Beating of your heart
  • Widening or narrowing of your blood vessels etc

 

STRUCTURES RELATED TO MUSCLE

  • Tendon
  • Aponeurosis
  • Tendon-synovial sheaths
  • Raphes

TENDON

  • Tough whitish cords
  • Inextensible
  • Varying in length and thickness
  • Comprise of parallel fascicles bundles of collagen fibers and tendon cells.

POINT OF ATTACHMENT OF TENDON

  • Endotendon: It blends with the periosteum
  • Collagen fiber component: pass through cortical bone

FUNCTION OF TENDON

  • Connect the muscles with bone and cartilages
  • Move the parts of body

APONEUROSIS

  • White fibrous tissue
  • Flattened and expanded sheets
  • Supplied with blood vessles
  • Parallel within and inclined in different directions

 

TENDON-SYNOVIAL SHEATHS

  • synovial sheath is a tubular bursa surrounds a tendon
  • The tendon invaginates the bursa from one side

 

RAPHES

  • A linear fibrous band
  • Formed by interdigitation of the short tendinous ends of muscle fibers

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